A recent study indicated that more than 5 million children have experienced a co-resident parent leaving for jail or prison. The vast majority of affected children have an incarcerated father. Children with a father in jail or prison are at elevated risk for developing behavior problems and academic difficulties, as well as a number of other problems. For children with incarcerated mothers, general risk factors tend to be prevalent (such as economic disadvantage and material hardship, parental substance abuse, etc.).